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Just the Facts: Bike Safety

Analysis of Bicycling Trends and Policies in Large North American Cities

University Transportation Research Center, 2011

This research report reviews trends in cycling levels, safety, and policies in large North American cities over the past two decades. The number of bike commuters in the USA rose by 64% from 1990 to 2009, and the bike share of commuters rose from 0.4% to 0.6%.


Review of Studies on Pedestrian and Bicyclist Safety, 1991-2007

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 2012.

This report reviews the pedestrian and bicyclist safety research literature from 1991 to 2007, highlighting key studies.

The National Bicycling and Walking Study: 15-year Status Report

U.S. Department of Transportation, 2010

The 15-year update measures the progress made toward the original goals of lowering the number of fatalities while increasing the percentage of trips made by bicycling and walking

Safer Vulnerable Road Users:  Pedestrians, Bicyclists, Motorcyclists, and Older Users

U.S. Department of Transportation, 2010.

Vulnerable road users account for nearly 16,000 highway –related deaths in the U.S. each year. The number of traffic fatalities for vulnerable road users reflects a serious safety problem for which aggressive and innovative solutions are needed.


Distracted Driving: A Bicycling Advocate’s Resource

League of American Bicyclists

Legislation will not, by itself, eliminate the risks to cyclists. Nor is passage of a law alone sufficient to reduce levels of distracted driving. Local groups have found that advocacy coalitions need to work with police to make sure that the laws are enforced and given proper priority.


Designing for the Safety of Pedestrians, Cyclists, and Motorists in Urban Environments

Texas A&M University, 2010

The factors associated with a vehicle crashing into a pedestrian or a cyclist are largely the same as those resulting in a crash with another vehicle: traffic conflicts and high vehicle speeds.

Sharing the Road: Optimizing Pedestrian and Bicycle Safety and Vehicle Mobility

Michigan Department of Transportation, 2012.

Pedestrians are very vulnerable on MDOT highways. While crashes involving pedestrians account for less than 1% of crashes in Michigan, they account for 12.7% of Michigan fatalities.

Feasibility Study for Bicycle Safety: Data Assessment and Network Evaluation

Purdue University, 2006

Two years' worth of bicycle crashes in Indiana found that human error was the most common factor in crashes, right angle collisions were the most common crash type, and most crashes occurred in daylight

Complete Intersections: a Guide to Reconstructing Intersections and Interchanges for Bicycles and Pedestrians

California Department of Transportation, 2010

Pedestrians and bicyclists accounted for 22 percent of all traffic fatalities between 2003 and 2007 in California. Twenty percent of pedestrian and bicyclist fatalities occurred at or near intersections. Improving both safety and mobility at intersections for pedestrians and bicyclists presents a significant technical challenge for planners, engineers and other highway designers.


Marshall, W., and N. Garrick, 2011

Cities with high bicycling rates tend to have lower crash rates for all road users.


Evaluating the safety effects of bicycle lanes in New York City.

Department of Civil Engineering, City College of New York, 2012.

Installation of bicycle lanes did not lead to an increase in crashes, despite the probable increase in the number of bicyclists. The most likely explanations for the lack of increase in crashes are reduced vehicular speeds and fewer conflicts between vehicles and bicyclists after installation of these lanes.


Bicyclist Fatalities and Serious Injuries in New York City

New York City Departments of Health and Mental Hygiene, Parks and Recreation, Transportation, and the New York City Police Department, 2005

Nearly all bicyclist fatalities (92%) occurred as a result of crashes with motor vehicles and most crashes (89%) occurred at or near intersections. Bicycle lanes and properly used bicycle equipment may reduce the risk of fatalities.

Is the three-foot bicycle passing law working in Baltimore, Maryland?

Johns Hopkins University, 2012

A study of bicyclists in Baltimore, Maryland found that motorists routinely disobeyed a state "three feet to pass" law.


Analysis of Bicycle-Related and Pedestrian-Related Roadway Crashes

Colorado Department of Transportation, 2007

Out of 208 crashes at top 25 intersections, nearly 70% of the crashes involved collision with a bicycle. 30% of the crashes involved collision with pedestrians. Of the pedestrian crashes, just over 10% involved school age children.

        Florida Department of Transportation, 2011. 
       Creating a wider outside lane provides room for bicyclists and motorists to share the lane. 
 Bicycle & Pedestrian Advocates