University Transportation Research Center, 2011
This research report reviews trends in cycling levels, safety, and policies in large North American cities over the past two decades. The number of bike commuters in the USA rose by 64% from 1990 to 2009, and the bike share of commuters rose from 0.4% to 0.6%.
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 2012.
This report reviews the pedestrian and bicyclist safety research literature from 1991 to 2007, highlighting key studies.
U.S. Department of Transportation, 2010
The 15-year update measures the progress made toward the original goals of lowering the number of fatalities while increasing the percentage of trips made by bicycling and walking
U.S. Department of Transportation, 2010.
Vulnerable road users account for nearly 16,000 highway –related deaths in the U.S. each year. The number of traffic fatalities for vulnerable road users reflects a serious safety problem for which aggressive and innovative solutions are needed.
League of American Bicyclists
Legislation will not, by itself, eliminate the risks to cyclists. Nor is passage of a law alone sufficient to reduce levels of distracted driving. Local groups have found that advocacy coalitions need to work with police to make sure that the laws are enforced and given proper priority.
Designing for the Safety of Pedestrians, Cyclists, and Motorists in Urban Environments
Texas A&M University, 2010
The factors associated with a vehicle crashing into a pedestrian or a cyclist are largely the same as those resulting in a crash with another vehicle: trafﬁc conﬂicts and high vehicle speeds.
Michigan Department of Transportation, 2012.
Pedestrians are very vulnerable on MDOT highways. While crashes involving pedestrians account for less than 1% of crashes in Michigan, they account for 12.7% of Michigan fatalities.
Purdue University, 2006
Two years' worth of bicycle crashes in Indiana found that human error was the most common factor in crashes, right angle collisions were the most common crash type, and most crashes occurred in daylight
California Department of Transportation, 2010
Pedestrians and bicyclists accounted for 22 percent of all traffic fatalities between 2003 and 2007 in California. Twenty percent of pedestrian and bicyclist fatalities occurred at or near intersections. Improving both safety and mobility at intersections for pedestrians and bicyclists presents a significant technical challenge for planners, engineers and other highway designers.
Marshall, W., and N. Garrick, 2011
Cities with high bicycling rates tend to have lower crash rates for all road users.
Department of Civil Engineering, City College of New York, 2012.
Installation of bicycle lanes did not lead to an increase in crashes, despite the probable increase in the number of bicyclists. The most likely explanations for the lack of increase in crashes are reduced vehicular speeds and fewer conflicts between vehicles and bicyclists after installation of these lanes.
New York City Departments of Health and Mental Hygiene, Parks and Recreation, Transportation, and the New York City Police Department, 2005
Nearly all bicyclist fatalities (92%) occurred as a result of crashes with motor vehicles and most crashes (89%) occurred at or near intersections. Bicycle lanes and properly used bicycle equipment may reduce the risk of fatalities.
Johns Hopkins University, 2012
Colorado Department of Transportation, 2007
Out of 208 crashes at top 25 intersections, nearly 70% of the crashes involved collision with a bicycle. 30% of the crashes involved collision with pedestrians. Of the pedestrian crashes, just over 10% involved school age children.
Florida Department of Transportation, 2011.
Creating a wider outside lane provides room for bicyclists and motorists to share the lane.